Forging is a metal forming process whereby carbon steel is heated and given a particular shape by the application of a compressive force. Usually the compressive force is in the form of hammer blows using a power hammer or a press. Forging refines the grain structure and improves the physical properties of the metal. With proper design, the grain flow can be oriented in the direction of principal stresses encountered in actual use. This results in a product that is stronger than cast or machined metal parts, more resistant to corrosion and effective at high temperatures.
Forgings are used in a variety of mechanical applications in heavy industries such as mining, construction and oil & gas exploration.